The Bonda tribe is one of the most primitive tribes in India. They live in Bonda Hills in Khairput block of Malkangiri District, Orissa. They are divided into Upper and Lower Bondas. The traditional and primary occupation of the Bonda tribe is paddy cultivation. They also engage in gleaning of seasonal forest products, hunting, fishing, animal husbandry.
Bonda women working in Paddy field
The making and selling of liquor, and seasonal sale of jungle produce and vegetables in weekly markets and through barter system are some of the ways of supplementing income. The income is meagre and cash in hand is a small amount. Their expenditure is mainly on food, rituals, ceremonies, healthcare and farming. Due to lack of livelihood options, many men and women migrate to cities to earn through labour work.
A Bonda woman making alcohol